Since birth, you may have observed your child smiling, making faces, or twitching while sleeping and wondered what they could be dreaming about. While it remains uncertain whether babies actually have dreams, we do know that there is significant brain activity occurring during their sleep.
This heightened brain activity is likely responsible for the various facial expressions and noises you’ve noticed. What we do know is that toddlers do dream, and at times, they may even have unpleasant dreams. If your child wakes up feeling unsettled or has trouble sleeping, you might wonder if bad dreams are the cause and what you can do to help them.
What are toddler nightmares?
Toddler nightmares are distressing and realistic bad dreams that wake your little one from their sleep. When a toddler experiences a nightmare, they can remember it and, if they are able to communicate verbally, they may want to discuss it with you. They may also find it challenging to fall back asleep after having a nightmare.
Although nightmares can happen at any time during the night, they tend to occur during the lighter stages of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is more prevalent in the early morning hours. Nightmares are quite common, with approximately half of children between the ages of 3 and 6 reporting having them.
When do children start having nightmares?
Most children occasionally have nightmares, but they are particularly common in young children aged 3 to 6. This is the stage when typical fears develop, imagination flourishes, and the ability to describe a bad dream becomes more advanced. Some younger children may also experience nightmares as early as 6 months old, and these nightmares can persist until they are 10 years old or older.
The frequency of nightmares in children can vary widely. Experts estimate that anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of children aged 3 to 6 have nightmares. Some children may experience them regularly, while others have them infrequently. Approximately 25 percent of children have nightmares about once a week.
Why do nightmares happen?
Similar to adults, toddlers frequently experience dreams. Often, these dreams are related to events from the day, familiar faces or objects, playtime, and interactions with friends and family. The purpose of dreaming is still not fully understood, but research suggests that dreams play a role in brain function.
However, some dreams can be distressing and disrupt our sleep. While the exact cause of nightmares is unknown, toddlers and older children are more likely to have nightmares when they are overly tired or experiencing stress.
How can I assist my children with nightmares?
There are several ways parents can provide comfort to their toddlers when they have nightmares, including physical reassurance, communication, and emotional support.
While occasional nightmares may be unavoidable, there are proven methods to help toddlers cope with them.
If your child wakes up suddenly and appears to be shaken or scared, offering a comforting back or belly rub and speaking to them in a soft, gentle voice can be helpful.
If gentle touch and comforting words don’t do the trick, it’s okay to pick up your child and spend some time rocking and singing with them until they relax.
If your child doesn’t settle down within a few minutes, try turning on a very dim light and talking to them about how they’re feeling. Even if babies and toddlers struggle to communicate what’s wrong, it’s important to allow them to express themselves. Keep the lines of communication open and offer plenty of snuggles as they settle into your arms, even if you don’t fully understand what they’re saying.
Sleep tips to prevent nightmares:
Since overtiredness increases the likelihood of nightmares in toddlers and babies, ensuring your child gets enough sleep is crucial. Make sure they have an age-appropriate bedtime and sufficient naps during the day. To encourage an appropriate bedtime, allow approximately 5-6 hours of awake time between your toddler or preschooler’s nap and bedtime. Limit daytime sleep to 2-3 hours.
Once you’ve established a suitable schedule, address any fears your child may have. As toddlers and preschoolers’ imagination develops, fears often arise. Common fears include “monsters” or the dark. Talk to your child about their fears, even if they struggle to explain them. Simply listening can provide significant comfort to children at this age. Consider installing a non-blue light night-light in their bedroom if they’re afraid of “monsters” or have unidentified fears. This extra bit of visibility can enhance their sense of security.
Evaluate the content your child watches on TV or devices. Even if the content is deemed suitable for young children, certain shows, movies, or apps may contain images that can frighten them. Scenes featuring “mean” or scary characters, as well as dark skies and heavy storms, can trigger stress responses in toddlers and preschoolers.
What distinguishes nightmares from night terrors?
Nightmares and night terrors have several key differences. Nightmares typically occur more than 3 hours after a child falls asleep and are often triggered by fears of things like monsters, darkness, or thunderstorms. On the other hand, night terrors happen earlier in the night, usually 1-2 hours after falling asleep, and occur when a child fails to transition between sleep stages properly.
During a nightmare, children may whimper or softly cry out in their sleep. They can be easily woken up and consoled. In contrast, during a night terror, a child may shout or thrash in their sleep. While witnessing a night terror can be terrifying, there’s no need to wake them up. In the morning, a child usually has no memory of the night terror, whereas they can recall bad dreams.
Night terrors in children are associated with poor sleep habits and are often triggered by inadequate sleep or staying awake too long before bedtime (overtiredness). In such cases, it’s important to assess the child’s sleep schedule and make adjustments, such as encouraging regular napping and an earlier bedtime.
Ways to comfort your toddler
Nightmares are unfamiliar and frightening to your toddler. Reassure them that their dreams are not real and cannot harm them. Let them know it’s all make-believe and didn’t actually happen. Remind them that you’re in the next room and will keep them safe from any perceived threats.
Be a good listener
Allow your child to talk about their nightmare. It can help them process the experience and identify any real-world triggers that might be contributing to their fears.
Label what happened
Remind your toddler that nightmares are not real, but acknowledge and validate their experience. Share that you also had scary dreams as a child and sometimes still do. This helps them understand that what they are going through is normal and happens to others too.
After a nightmare, don’t leave your child alone immediately. Offer extra cuddles and snuggles to help them feel safe. It’s recommended to do this in their own bedroom, rather than bringing them to your bed, to establish a sense of safety in their own sleeping space and prevent a habit of sleeping in your bed every night.
Redirect their imaginatio
Following a nightmare, a child’s imagination may continue to focus on negative thoughts. Encourage them to envision a positive outcome instead. Turn it into a game by asking what would happen if the scary element in their dream became a friend who needed help. You can also suggest drawing a picture of a positive outcome, though it may be best to save this activity for the morning to allow them to return to sleep.
If your toddler is afraid of the dark, a nightlight or a hallway light can provide a sense of security. Leaving their bedroom door slightly open can also make them feel safer.
Assist with falling asleep
Your child may initially be too alert to go back to sleep after a nightmare, but it’s important for them to get rest. After a period of comforting and reassurance, tuck them in with a favorite stuffed animal and talk about happy dreams they could have instead of nightmares. Encourage them to relax and gradually return to sleep.
Q: What triggers nightmares in toddlers?
Nightmares in toddlers can be triggered by various factors, including fears and anxieties, exposure to scary or unsettling images or stories, changes in routine or environment, illness or fever, overstimulation before bedtime, or inadequate sleep.
Q: Is it normal for toddlers to have nightmares?
Yes, it is normal for toddlers to have nightmares. Nightmares are a common part of normal development in children, including toddlers. As their imagination and cognitive abilities develop, they may experience dreams that are unsettling or scary. Most toddlers will have nightmares occasionally, and they usually decrease in frequency as they grow older.
Q: Why does my 2-year-old have nightmares every night?
If your 2-year-old is having nightmares every night, it may be worth exploring potential underlying causes. Common factors could include increased fears and anxieties, disruptions in their routine or environment, exposure to distressing media or experiences, or inadequate sleep. It may be helpful to assess their daily routine, sleep patterns, and any recent changes that could be contributing to the frequent nightmares. Consulting with a pediatrician or a child sleep specialist can provide further guidance.
Q: How can I stop my toddler from having nightmares?
While it’s not possible to completely prevent nightmares in toddlers, there are steps you can take to minimize their occurrence:
– Establish a soothing bedtime routine: Create a consistent and calming routine before bedtime to help your toddler relax and feel secure.
– Ensure a sleep-friendly environment: Make sure the bedroom is comfortable, quiet, and dimly lit. Provide familiar and comforting objects, such as a favorite stuffed animal or blanket.
– Monitor media exposure: Avoid exposing your toddler to scary or age-inappropriate content in books, TV shows, or movies that might trigger nightmares.
– Address fears and anxieties: Listen to your child’s concerns and talk about their fears during the day. Offer reassurance and help them understand that their dreams are not real.
– Encourage healthy sleep habits: Ensure that your toddler is getting sufficient sleep according to their age and establish a consistent sleep schedule. Avoid overtiredness by providing regular naps and an appropriate bedtime.
– Create a positive sleep association: Use positive imagery or storytelling before bed to encourage pleasant dreams. Engage in activities that promote relaxation, such as reading soothing books or listening to calming music.
– Provide comfort and support: When your toddler wakes up from a nightmare, be present, offer physical and emotional comfort, and reassure them that they are safe. Gradually guide them back to sleep using soothing techniques.
If your toddler’s nightmares persist or significantly disrupt their sleep and daily functioning, it may be helpful to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance.
Q: How to help kids with nightmares?
To help kids with nightmares, establish healthy sleep habits, including age-appropriate sleep schedules and a conducive sleep environment. Create a predictable bedtime routine, which may include a warm bath, storytime, and cuddles. It’s essential that caregivers follow a consistent routine, even if their approaches differ slightly, to provide a sense of security and signal that sleep is approaching.
Q: Why do kids have nightmares?
The exact cause of nightmares in children is not fully understood, but they are often linked to factors such as overtiredness, poor sleep routines, and stress. Sleep deprivation can increase the likelihood of nightmares, making it crucial to address any sleep challenges in toddlers.
Q: How do I stop my child from having nightmares?
To reduce the occurrence of nightmares in your child, ensure they have an age-appropriate sleep schedule, including regular naps. Communicate with your child about their preferences for bedtime conditions, such as whether they prefer the door open or closed, if they want a nightlight, or if they prefer a darker environment.
Q: What causes a child to have nightmares?
While the exact cause of nightmares remains uncertain, stressful events are believed to be significant triggers for more frequent and intense bad dreams. Transitions, such as dropping off at daycare or ending playtime, can induce stress in toddlers. Maintaining a consistent daytime routine and allowing extra time for difficult transitions can help prevent overtiredness and stress.
Q: Is my toddler having nightmares?
If your toddler is typically a good sleeper but has started waking up crying or screaming, it’s possible they had a nightmare. Toddler nightmares often occur during the later part of the night or early morning. Early wakings are more likely related to parent-dependent sleep associations, like being rocked to sleep or falling asleep next to a caregiver.
Q: Are nightmares a bad thing?
Nightmares are generally unpleasant experiences that can disrupt sleep and cause distress. While occasional nightmares are normal for both children and adults, their exact function and significance in children’s development are still not fully understood. Nightmares can help adults confront fears in their daily lives, but it’s yet to be proven if they serve a similar purpose for children in managing stress. Regardless, offering comfort and support to children experiencing nightmares is essential to help them feel safe and secure.
Q: Is it normal for babies to experience nightmares every night?
It is not common for babies to experience nightmares every night. Nightmares are more commonly observed in toddlers and older children. Babies may exhibit various movements and facial expressions during sleep, but it is unclear whether they are actually experiencing dreams or nightmares.
Q: Is this common when the child is sick?
Illness can disrupt a child’s sleep patterns, potentially leading to more disturbed sleep and the possibility of nightmares. However, the frequency of nightmares during illness can vary among children. It’s important to provide comfort and support to a sick child experiencing nightmares to help them feel secure and promote better sleep.
Q: What are common childhood nightmares?
Common childhood nightmares can vary among individuals, but some themes frequently reported by children include being chased or attacked by animals or monsters, experiencing falls or being lost, encountering supernatural beings or ghosts, and facing scary situations such as dark rooms or thunderstorms. These nightmares often reflect the child’s fears and anxieties, and they may change as the child grows and develops.